Undergraduate Catalog

Mathematics and Philosophy

Chairperson: Dr. Iraj Kalantari
Office: Morgan Hall 476
Telephone: (309) 298-1054; Fax: (309) 298-1857
E-mail: Mathematics@wiu.edu
Website: wiu.edu/math, wiu.edu/philosophy

Program Offerings and Locations:

  • Bachelor of Science in Mathematics: Macomb
  • Minor in Mathematics: Macomb
  • Minor in Middle Level Mathematics Teaching: Macomb
  • Minor in Philosophy: Macomb

Faculty: Adeleke, Andreev, Aouina, G. Baramidze, V. Baramidze, Blackford, Brooks, Chisholm, Dimitrov, Dofing, Ealy, A. Ekanayake, D. Ekanayake, Felt, Hansen, Hartweg, Haugen, Hodgson, Kalantari, Kay, Kline, LaFountain, Mann, Marikova, Martinelli- Fernandez, Moniri, Olsen, B. Petracovici, L. Petracovici, Pettit, Powell, Pynes, Tasdan, Turkelli, Welch, Yang.

Mathematics and philosophy exemplify logical analysis in its highest form. Logic is shared by the two disciplines and binds them together. The study of mathematics and philosophy develops students’ abilities to read critically, write logically, analyze complementary and contrasting assumptions, and give rigorous justification and arguments. Mathematical knowledge and skills are tools for modeling and solving quantifiable problems; philosophical training provides tools for analyzing and understanding fundamental issues arising out of human thought and existence.

Mathematics, literally knowledge, study, learning, investigates the logic of structure, quantity, and change, developing concepts that provide the foundations and landscape of many fields of knowledge. Mathematicians engage in determining exact explanations for the truth of subtle and complex propositions. Mathematical ideas, studies, and findings range from abstract and theoretical to applied and practical. Applied mathematics and statistics lend effectiveness to study of many fields such as sciences, engineering, economics, finance, and risk management.

Philosophy, literally love of wisdom, is the study of the intellectual foundations of every area of human thought and action. Philosophers engage in critical examination of such topics as existence, knowledge, values, religion, science, language, mind, logic, and reasoning. Studying philosophy develops analytic reasoning, promotes clear writing, and provides students with the tools for success in many other professions, such as law, finance, business, public relations, journalism, consulting, and public policy making.

The department offers Mathematics and Statistics courses that fulfill the Natural Sciences and Mathematics requirement of the University General Education Curriculum, as well as Philosophy courses fulfilling the Humanities requirement. Degree programs offered include a major and minor in Mathematics, a comprehensive major in Mathematics Teacher Education (for licensure as a secondary teacher), a minor in Middle Level Mathematics Teaching (for endorsement in the area of mathematics as a 5th-8th grade teacher), and a minor in Philosophy.

GradTrac is available to Mathematics and Computational and Data-Enabled Mathematics and Statistics majors. See more information about GradTrac.

Honors Curriculum—Academically qualified students in this department are encouraged to complete an honors curriculum in University Honors, Departmental Honors, or General Honors. All Honors students must complete the one-hour honors colloquium (G H 299). General Honors includes General Honors coursework. Departmental Honors includes honors work in the major. University Honors combines Departmental and General Honors. For more information about honors curricula see the Centennial Honors College page of the catalog or visit the Centennial Honors College website at wiu.edu/Honors.

Integrated Baccalaureate and Master’s Degree Program—An integrated baccalaureate and master’s degree program is available for the Bachelor of Science in Mathematics (Mathematics and Computational and Data-Enabled Mathematics and Statistics options): Master of Science in Mathematics. An integrated degree program provides the opportunity for outstanding undergraduates to earn both degrees in five years. Please refer to the Graduate Studies catalog for details about the integrated program.

Advanced Placement (AP) and College Level Examination Program (CLEP)

Students scoring 3 or higher on the AP Calculus AB Examination will receive 4 s.h. of credit for MATH 133 and advanced placement into MATH 134. Students scoring 5 or 4 on the AP Calculus BC Examination will receive 8 s.h. of credit for MATH 133 and 134 and advanced placement into MATH 231. Students scoring a 3 on the AP Calculus BC Examination will receive 4 s.h. of credit for MATH 133 and advanced placement into MATH 134.

Students scoring 3 or higher on the AP Statistics Examination will receive 3 s.h. of credit for STAT 171.

Students scoring 53 or higher on the CLEP Calculus Examination will receive 4 s.h. of credit for MATH 133 and advanced placement into MATH 134.

Proficiency Examinations

Proficiency examinations are available from the Proficiency Examination Coordinator (Morgan Hall 476) for the material covered in MATH 133, 134, 231, 137, 138, 139, and STAT 276. The department may approve proficiency examinations in some upper division courses if sufficient justification and evidence of knowledge are presented. Students will receive the appropriate hourly credit for each course for which they pass the proficiency examination.

Advisement

The Department of Mathematics and Philosophy provides advising for:

  1. Mathematics majors and minors
  2. Philosophy minors
  3. Transfer students
  4. Area of endorsement in Mathematics for Teacher Education majors

A person seeking advice in one of these areas should contact the Department of Mathematics and Philosophy.

Degree Program

Bachelor of Science—Mathematics

All students seeking the Bachelor of Science in Mathematics must complete I, II, and III.A, III.B, or III.C below, and the foreign language/global issues requirement for the major#. The minimum semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree is 120 s.h.

In accordance with the Illinois State Board of Education licensure rules, all candidates seeking teacher licensure are required by Western Illinois University to obtain a grade of “C” or better in all directed General Education courses, all core courses, and all courses in the option. Note a “C-” is below a “C”.

  1. University General Education and College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Requirements: 55 s.h.
    Except Teacher Education students must complete the University General Education Curriculum Requirements—43 s.h.
  2. Core Courses: 22 s.h.
    MATH 133, 134, 231, 280, 311, 341, and either 391† or 444†
  3. Options of Study (select A, B, or C)
    1. Mathematics
      1. Special Courses: 12 s.h.
        1. MATH 421 and 435: 6 s.h.
        2. Choose one course from: MATH 333, 383, or 433: 3 s.h.
        3. Choose one course from: MATH 481 or STAT 471: 3 s.h.
      2. Directed Electives: 9 s.h.
        Three upper-division electives (9 s.h.) in addition to the chosen Option Courses. The chosen Option Courses and Directed Electives, together, are to include an approved sequence of two 400-level courses in one of the following areas: algebra, analysis, applied mathematics, or statistics.
      3. Any Minor: 16–21 s.h.
      4. Open Electives: 9–14 s.h.
    2. Mathematics—Teacher Education
      1. Special Courses: 26 s.h.
        1. STAT 276: 3 s.h.
        2. MATH 211, 304, 355, 383, 389, 411, 421: 20 s.h.
        3. MATH 433 or 435: 3 s.h.
      2. Other: 43 s.h.
      3. 8 s.h. science sequence: 8 s.h.
      4. EDUC 439: 4 s.h.
      5. EIS 202, 301, 303 (2 s.h.), 304 (1 s.h.), 305, 401: 13 s.h.
      6. RDG 387 or ENG 366: 2 s.h.
      7. SPED 210 and 390: 4 s.h.
      8. Student Teaching: 12 s.h.
    3. Computational and Data-Enabled Applied Mathematics and Statistics
      1. Special Courses: 18 s.h.
        1. MATH 333, 383, 481: 9 s.h.
        2. Choose one course from: MATH 424 or 435: 3 s.h.
        3. Choose one course from: STAT 276 or 471: 3 s.h.
        4. Choose one course from: STAT 474 or 478: 3 s.h.
      2. Focus Area Courses: 9 s.h.
        Three additional courses in a single, approved focus area. Must include one 400-level course and another upper-division course, which are not to be a part of the minor courses when the focus and minor areas happen to be the same. Approved focus areas include (but are not limited to) Statistics, Decision Sciences, and Computer Science. May include, up to twice, 3 s.h. of internship while taking a 3–12 s.h. internship course (MATH 496 or other departments’ internship courses).
      3. Other: CS 214: 3 s.h.
      4. Approved Minor: 16–21 s.h.
      5. Open Electives: 0–5 s.h.

# The foreign language/global issues graduation requirement may be fulfilled by successfully completing one of the following: 1) a designated foreign language requirement [see Foreign Language/Global Issues Requirement]; 2) a General Education global issues course; 3) any major’s discipline-specific global issues course; or 4) an approved Study Abroad program.
† MATH 391 or MATH 444 fulfills the Writing Instruction in the Discipline WID graduation requirement.

Minors

Minor in Mathematics: 17 s.h.
  1. MATH 133, 134: 8 s.h.
  2. At least 9 hours of approved Mathematics Electives with at least 6 of the hours in courses numbered above 300: 9 s.h.

Note: Students majoring in Physics and minoring in Mathematics may count PHYS 468 as one three-hour Mathematics elective course numbered above 300.

Minor in Middle Level Mathematics Teaching: 24 s.h.
  1. MATH 128, 137, 260, 367, 402, 407; STAT 171: 21 s.h.
  2. MATH 406 or MATH 408 or STAT 409: 3 s.h.

Note: This minor is offered in conjunction with the major in Middle Level Education. By itself, this minor will not be sufficient for education endorsement purposes.

Minor in Philosophy: 18 s.h.

Complete a minimum of six courses (18 s.h.) in Philosophy, three of which (9 s.h.) must be 300- or 400-level courses.

Courses Not Counting toward a Mathematics Major or the Minor in Mathematics (#)

The following courses do not count towards a Mathematics major or the minor in Mathematics: MATH 099N, 100, 101, 102, 123, 128, 129, 137, 138, 139, 260, 362, 364, 367, 402, 406, 407, 408; STAT 171, 409.

Note: The symbol # is placed by each of the numbers above in the course descriptions which follow.

Course Descriptions

MATHEMATICS (MATH)

#099N Intermediate Algebra. (4) Number systems, linear and quadratic equations and inequalities, exponents, polynomials, rational expressions, and graphing. Introduction to the concept of function including exponential and logarithmic functions. Does not count toward graduation. Graded S/U only.

#100 Core Competency in Mathematics. (3) Introduction to and use of mathematics in problem solving, modeling, and drawing inferences, through a study of diverse examples and cases of real-world problems. Prerequisite: one year of high school geometry with grade of C or higher and MATH 099N or equivalent with a grade of S (C grade or higher), or WIU placement. Graded A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, or U.

#101 Concepts of Mathematics. (3) (General Education/Mathematics) An introduction to sets, logic, counting and probability, and statistics to provide students with an insight into mathematical reasoning and its applications. Prerequisite: MATH 100 or equivalent (C grade or higher) or WIU placement. IAI: M1 904.

#102 Creative Perspectives in Mathematics. (3) (General Education/Mathematics) Three or four topics chosen from Mathematics of social choice and game theory, management science and graph theory, linear programming, mathematics of finance, geometry and symmetry, emphasizing applications. Prerequisite: WIU placement, or MATH 100 or equivalent (C grade or better). IAI: M1 904.

#123 Modeling with Mathematical Functions. (3) (General Education/Mathematics) The application of numeric, geometric, algebraic, and trigonometric models to analyze situations and solve problems from natural, social, and applied sciences, with integrated use of technology. Not open to students with credit in MATH 128. Prerequisite: MATH 100 (grade of C or higher) or WIU placement. IAI: M1 907.

#128 Precalculus Algebra. (3) Polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, and rational functions. Emphasis on algebraic manipulation. Not open to students with credit in MATH 131. Prerequisite: WIU placement, or MATH 100 or equivalent (C grade or better).

#129 Precalculus Trigonometry. (3) Trigonometric and inverse trig functions, graphing, proving identities, solving equations, and additional trig topics. Some nontrig material such as polar coordinates and complex numbers are included. Not open to students with credit in MATH 131. Prerequisite: MATH 128 (C grade or better) or equivalent.

133 Calculus with Analytic Geometry I. (4) (General Education/Mathematics) Derivatives and integrals of elementary functions with applications and analytic geometry. Prerequisite: MATH 129 or equivalent (C grade or better). IAI: M1 900-1; MTH 901.

134 Calculus with Analytic Geometry II. (4) (General Education/Mathematics) Further techniques of integration with applications, additional topics in analytic geometry, infinite series. Prerequisite: MATH 133 (C grade or better). IAI: M1 900-2; MTH 902.

#137 Applied Calculus I. (3) (General Education/ Mathematics) Introduction to differential and integral calculus with applications to business and social science. Not open to students who have credit for MATH 133. Prerequisite: MATH 128 (C grade or better) or MATH 129, or equivalent. IAI: M1 900-B as MATH 137/138 sequence.

#138 Applied Calculus II. (3) (General Education/ Mathematics) Extension of basic operations to new functions including functions of several variables with appropriate applications. Prerequisite: MATH 137 (C grade or better). IAI: M1 900-B as MATH 137/138 sequence.

#139 Applied Linear Algebra and Finite Mathematics. (3) (General Education/Mathematics) Matrix algebra with applications. Topics from finite mathematics. Not open to students with credit in MATH 311. Prerequisite: MATH 128 (C grade or better) or equivalent, or MATH 123 (C grade or better). IAI: M1 906.

197 Honors Calculus Seminar. (1, repeatable to 2) A more rigorous development of selected topics from calculus including limits, continuity, definitions of derivatives, and definite integrals and notions of proof. Prerequisites: concurrent enrollment in either MATH 133 or 134 and consent of the Honors Committee.

211 Euclidean Geometry. (3) Euclidean geometry through constructions and proofs. Topics include angles, triangles, circles, quadrilaterals, congruence and similarity, area, three-dimensional objects, volume and surface area, and Euclidean transformations. Prerequisite: MATH 133 or equivalent, or permission of the department chair.

231 Calculus with Analytic Geometry III. (4) Vectors, three dimensional analytic geometry, partial differentiation, and multiple integration. Prerequisite: MATH 134 (C grade or better). IAI: M1 900-3; MTH 903.

255 Discrete Mathematical Structures for Computer Science. (3) Topics to be studied include sets, logic, method of proof, combinatorial methods, graph theory, and trees. Prerequisite: MATH 128 or equivalent.

#260 Numeric, Algebraic, and Geometric Reasoning for Teaching and Learning. (4) A mathematics course for elementary and middle school teachers examining numbers, algebra, geometry, and measurement; featuring problem solving, applications, and concrete and visual representations. Prerequisite: WIU placement or MATH 128 (C or better) or equivalent.

280 Topics in Computer-Assisted Mathematics. (3) Computer tools in service to mathematical experimentation and investigation in various subjects; tools include a Computer Algebra System, such as Mathematica, and other mathematical software; subjects include calculus, number theory, algebra, geometry, and other areas. Prerequisites: MATH 231 or equivalent.

297 Honors Problem Seminar. (2–3) The study and analysis of the techniques of problem solving from different areas of Mathematics. Prerequisites: MATH 134 and at least a 3.00 GPA in Mathematics.

304 Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Reading in Secondary School Mathematics. (4) Study of the secondary Mathematics curriculum for purposes of representing knowledge meaningfully for all students. Focus is on conceptual content knowledge, methods of inquiry, appropriate use of technology in the classroom, creation of learning experiences, and instruction in reading Mathematics. Prerequisites: 2.50 GPA or higher in Mathematics; MATH 341 (C grade or better), and EIS 301; or permission of the department chair. Corequisite: EIS 303 (2 s.h.).

311 Linear Algebra. (3) Systems of linear equations, matrix algebra, vector spaces, linear transformations, and related topics. Prerequisite: MATH 134; or MATH 138; or MATH 133 and MATH 255 and CS 355; or MATH 137 and MATH 255 and CS 355.

333 Ordinary Differential Equations. (3) Elementary theory and applications of ordinary differential equations including linear equations of first and second order and linear systems. Prerequisite: MATH 231. IAI: MTH 912.

334 Differential Equations Computation Laboratory. (1) The computer as an investigative tool to study the theory and applications of differential equations. Basic numerical methods such as Euler and Runge-Kutta are illustrated. Prerequisites: MATH 280 and co-enrollment in MATH 333, or consent of instructor.

341 Sets and Logic. (3) Elementary logic, sets and their properties, relations and functions, Boolean algebras, and finite and infinite sets. Prerequisite: MATH 134 (C grade or better).

355 Applied Combinatorics. (3) Applications of enumerations (counting) and graph theory (networks, circuits, trees) are covered. Combinatorial problems including applications in computer science and operations research are solved through a careful logical analysis of possibilities. Prerequisite: STAT 276 or MATH 311.

#362 Teaching Mathematics in PreK–2nd Grade. (3) Methods and content for planning, implementing, and assessing math curriculum for children in PreK–2nd grade. Prerequisites: ECH 271 and 273; MATH 260 or equivalent (C grade or better).

#364 Teaching Elementary School Mathematics. (4) An examination of pedagogical mathematics content in elementary school (Grades 1–6), the development of lesson plans and assessments implementing national and state standards, and integration of technology in the mathematics classroom. Prerequisites: MATH 260 (C grade or better) or equivalent and permission of the College of Education and Human Services; full acceptance into the Teacher Education Program.

#367 Teaching Middle School Mathematics. (3) An examination of the pedagogical Mathematics content in middle school (Grades 5–8), the development of lesson plans and assessments implementing national and state standards, and integration of technology in the Mathematics classroom. Prerequisite: MATH 260 (C grade or better) or equivalent and permission of the College of Education and Human Services; full acceptance into the Teacher Education Program.

383 An Introduction to Mathematical Modeling. (3) Modeling using graphs, proportionality, and the derivative; the modeling process; model fitting; optimization, dimensional analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 134 or consent of instructor.

389 Teaching of Algebra Seminar. (1) A course for students concurrently assigned to assist in laboratory sections of MATH 099N. The course will provide students with a weekly forum to reflect upon and discuss experiences from the algebra classroom. Prerequisite: 2.50 GPA or higher in Mathematics with permission of the department chair. Graded S/U only.

390 Independent Study. (1–3, repeatable to 3) Prerequisites: sophomore standing and consent of instructor.

391 Writing in the Mathematical Sciences. (1) Issues of technical writing and the effective presentation of Mathematics in formal and informal formats. Instruction and practice in writing. Writing Instruction in the Discipline WID course. Prerequisites: MATH 231; ENG 280. Corequisite: Any 300- or 400-level MATH or STAT course counting toward a major in Mathematics.

397 Honors Mathematics Seminar. (1–3, repeatable to 6) Prerequisites: MATH 134, consent of instructor, and 3.00 GPA in Mathematics.

#402 Investigations in School Geometry. (2) A conceptual development of geometry through the investigation of geometric relationships and informal understandings leading to formal deductions. Middle and junior high school emphasis. Prerequisite: MATH 123 or MATH 128 or equivalent.

#406 Problem Solving and the History of Mathematics. (3) Various problems, their solutions, related mathematical concepts, and their historical significance are analyzed through investigation of classic problems and their connection to middle school mathematics. Contributions by Archimedes, Descartes, Eratosthenes, Euler, Gauss, Pascal, Pythagoras, and others are studied. Open only to students majoring in an Elementary Education program or Middle Level Education program. Prerequisite: MATH 123 or 128 or equivalent.

#407 Number Theory Concepts in School Mathematics. (3) Divisibility, prime numbers, perfect numbers, modular arithmetic, linear Diophantine equations, and related topics. Open only to students majoring in an Elementary Education program or Middle Level Education program. Prerequisite: MATH 123 or MATH 128 or equivalent.

#408 Mathematical Topics and Technology for Middle School. (3) The study of programming, algorithms, and technology resources to investigate concepts and connections in the content areas of middle school Mathematics. Prerequisite: MATH 123 or MATH 128 or equivalent.

411 Geometry. (3) A rigorous study of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. The necessary axioms are introduced and several models including the hyperbolic geometry are examined. Prerequisite: MATH 341.

421 Abstract Algebra. (3) An introduction to the basic properties of groups, rings, and fields. Prerequisite: MATH 341.

424 Advanced Linear Algebra. (3) Matrix algebra, vector spaces, linear independence, bases, linear transformations, canonical forms, inner product spaces. Prerequisite: MATH 311 and 341, or equivalent.

430 Multivariable Calculus. (3) The algebra of functions, continuity, differentiation, and integration of n-place functions, and related topics. Prerequisites: MATH 231 and 311.

433 Complex Variables and Applications. (3) Functions of a complex variable including differentiation, integration, series, residues, and conformal mappings. Applications to evaluation of real integrals and boundary value problems. Prerequisite: MATH 231.

435 Introduction to Real Variables I. (3) Topology of the real line, sequences, limits, and series. Rigorous introduction to the study of one-variable functions, continuity, differentiability, and integrability based on the epsilon-delta method. Prerequisites: MATH 231 and 341.

436 Introduction to Real Variables II. (3) A continuation of Math 435. Prerequisite: MATH 435.

439 Teaching and Assessment in Secondary School Mathematics. (4) A study of teaching strategies and current trends in secondary mathematics education. Students will focus on curriculum, lesson-planning, and assessment, and will learn to effectively incorporate technology into the teaching and learning of mathematics. Open to Teacher Education majors only. Prerequisite: 2.50 GPA or higher in Mathematics; MATH 304, MATH 341, and co-registration in EIS 304; or permission of the department chair.

441 Mathematical Logic. (3) Introduction to some of the principal topics of mathematical logic. Topics include propositional calculus, quantification theory, the Completeness Theorem, formal theories, models of theories, and recursion theory. Prerequisite: MATH 341.

444 Undergraduate Research Project. (1-2) Dedicated, individual pursuit of a mathematical topic/ application from an area of research that is represented within the department culminating in a final paper or presentation to peers and faculty. Writing Instruction in the Discipline WID course. Prerequisites: MATH 341, ENG 280, junior standing, and consent of instructor.

461 Introductory Topology. (3) Basic properties of topological spaces. Open and closed sets, compactness, the intermediate value theorem, metric spaces, completeness, and uniform continuity. Prerequisite: MATH 341.

480 Student Teaching. (12) See STCH 480 in Teacher Education curriculum. Credit for Teacher Education major only.

481 Numerical Analysis I. (3) A survey of current methods in numerical analysis. Error analysis, solution of nonlinear equations and systems of linear equations, polynomial interpolation and approximations, and related topics. Prerequisites: MATH 231, 280, and 311; or consent of instructor.

483 Biomathematics. (3) Mathematical modeling of biological systems. Derivation and study of continuous time Markov chain models and corresponding ordinary differential equation models. Prerequisites: MATH 134 and 311, and either STAT 276 or 471; or equivalent.

488 Models in Applied Mathematics. (3) Theory and computer exploration of mathematical models using difference equations, differential equations, and dynamical systems. Applications from the sciences. Prerequisites: MATH 231, 280, and 311; or consent of instructor.

496 Internship. (3–12, repeatable once to a combined maximum of 12) An internship in an approved area relating to applied mathematics or statistics, conducted at a professional institution or government organization. It is expected that the experience will culminate in a final paper or portfolio. Only 3 s.h. per semester can be included in the major. A maximum of 6 s.h. may be included in the major. Prerequisites: completion of 12 s.h. of upper-division MATH courses and approval of the department. Graded S/U.

497 Honors Mathematics Seminar. (1–3, repeatable to 6) Prerequisites: 3.00 GPA in Mathematics and either MATH 341 or consent of instructor.

STATISTICS (STAT)

#171 General Elementary Statistics. (3) (General Education/Mathematics) Principles and applications of sampling, estimation, and hypothesis testing. Prerequisite: WIU placement, or MATH 100 or equivalent (C grade or better). IAI: M1 902.

276 Introduction to Probability & Statistics. (3) Probability laws, random variables, probability distribution functions, population parameters, counting rules, statistics and sampling, estimating, testing hypotheses, regression, and correlation. Not open to students with credit in STAT 471. Prerequisite: MATH 133 or 137 or equivalent.

376 Methods of Statistics. (3) Analysis and estimation of experimental results using analysis of variance, correlation and regression, contingency tables, analysis of covariance, and some nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: STAT 276 or equivalent.

#409 Probability and Statistics for Middle School Teachers. (3) Probability laws, random variables, probability distributions, estimation and inference, sampling and data analysis, emphasis on concepts and connections of probability and statistical content to the challenges of teaching statistics for middle school teachers. Prerequisite: MATH 123 or 128, or equivalent.

471 Introduction to Mathematical Statistics I. (3) The mathematical foundations of probability and statistics, principles of probability, sampling, distributions, moments, and hypothesis testing. Prerequisite: MATH 138 or 231 or equivalent.

474 Regression and Correlation Analysis. (3) Least squares theory; correlation theory; simple, multiple, and stepwise regression; computer assisted model building; and applied problems. Prerequisite: STAT 276 or equivalent.

476 Surveys and Sampling Methods. (3) The design of surveys and the study of sampling methods including simple random, stratified random, systematic, and cluster sampling. Prerequisite: STAT 171 or equivalent.

478 Analysis of Variance. (3) A study of analysis of variance and covariance with applications. Includes experimental design. Prerequisite: STAT 276 or equivalent.

PHILOSOPHY (PHIL)

100 (Formerly PHIL 105) Introduction to Philosophy. (3) (General Education/Humanities) An introduction to some of the fundamental problems and major theories in philosophy. Topics may include the existence of God, knowledge and skepticism, the nature of mind, free will and determinism, and the nature of ethical reasoning. IAI: H4 900.

120 Contemporary Moral Problems. (3) (General Education/Humanities) An introduction to ethics, with an emphasis on applied ethics and moral reasoning. Different moral theories will be used to explore topics such as sexuality, reproductive issues, animal rights, environmental ethics, racial and gender discrimination, euthanasia, and capital punishment. IAI: H4 904.

140 Logic and Reasoning. (3) (General Education/ Humanities) An introduction to logic and reasoning with emphasis on practical applications including scientific reasoning. The course examines methods for evaluating the structures of inductive and deductive arguments and how language is used in argumentation. IAI: H4 906.

205 Philosophy, Law and Society. (3) (General Education/Humanities) An introductory course considering some fundamental philosophical problems concerned with law and society including power and authority, anarchy and freedom, law and justice, crime and punishment.

220 (Cross-listed with WS 220) Feminism and Ethics. (3) (General Education/Multicultural Studies) A multicultural and comparative investigation of feminist issues in ethics and women’s contributions to moral theory. Not open to students with credit in WS 220.

300 History of Ancient Philosophy. (3) A study of the origin of Western philosophy and the development of philosophical ideas in Ancient Greece, beginning with the earliest Pre-Socratic philosophers and including Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

310 History of Modern Philosophy. (3) An examination of the central metaphysical and epistemological doctrines of such seventeenth and eighteenth century philosophers as Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. Topics may include knowledge, skepticism, innate ideas, substance, God, causality, mind, and perception. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

312 Philosophical Writing. (1) Instruction and experience in writing a paper which explains and critically evaluates a philosophical text or argument. Writing Instruction in the Discipline WID course. Prerequisites: ENG 280 and consent of department chairperson. Corequisite: any 300- or 400-level Philosophy course.

320 Analytic Philosophy. (3) An examination of twentieth century philosophy through the writings of Russell, Wittgenstein, the logical positivists, and other important figures of the analytic tradition. Topics may include knowledge of the external world, language and reality, and the possibility of metaphysical knowledge. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

325 Existentialism. (3) An examination of the ideas of freedom, self/other, the value of authenticity, death, and the meaning of existence in the works of major existentialist philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, De Beauvoir, and Camus. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

330 Moral Philosophy. (3) A study of classical and contemporary ethical ideas and theories such as moral relativism, egoism, Kantian ethics, utilitarianism, and virtue ethics. BGS online writing course. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

333 Environmental Ethics. (3) A study of ethical issues regarding the relationship between human beings and non-human nature. Topics include the moral status of animals and other living things, intergenerational justice regarding pollution and conservation of natural resources, and the value of wilderness protection. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

335 Epistemology. (3) A critical study of selected topics in epistemology, such as the analysis of knowledge, skepticism, a priori knowledge, and the nature and structure of justification. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

340 Symbolic Logic. (3) A study of deductive logic covering the logic of sentences and the logic of predicates. Prerequisite: PHIL 140 or consent of instructor.

345 Metaphysics. (3) A critical study of selected topics in metaphysics, such as the nature of properties, possible worlds, personal identity, free will, the mind, time, and the possibility of metaphysical knowledge. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

400 Social and Political Philosophy. (3) An investigation of some of the philosophical problems arising from political society, such as authority and obligation, freedom and rights, justice and equality, coercion and punishment. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

405 Philosophy of Religion. (3) A critical examination of the philosophical issues arising from religious beliefs, utilizing historical and contemporary writings. Topics may include the existence of God, evil, faith, religious pluralism, and the relation between religious beliefs and ethics. Not open to students with credit in REL 405. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

415 Philosophy of Science. (3) An examination of philosophical problems arising from the natural sciences such as the nature of scientific explanation and the justification of scientific theories. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

420 Philosophy of Law. (3) An examination of philosophical problems raised by law including the nature and aims of law, the relation of law and morality, the rationale of legal responsibility and punishment, and legal obligation and the rule of law. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

425 Philosophy of Mind. (3) A critical study of selected topics in the philosophy of mind, such as consciousness, intentionality, dualism, the varieties of materialism, functionalism, and artificial intelligence. Prerequisite: one 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or consent of instructor.

440 Legal Reasoning. (3) An investigation into judicial decision making and legal reasoning focusing on case precedent, logical coherence, and the role of interpretation in the reasoning process. Prerequisite: any 100- or 200-level Philosophy course or permission of instructor.

490 Bachelor’s Thesis in Philosophy. (3) Selection of topic, preparation of outline and bibliography, writing of thesis, oral defense of thesis. Graded S/U only. By arrangement.

495 Internship. (1–3, repeatable to 6) One credit hour is available for every 40 hours worked. Supervised work assignments in public or private agencies requiring critical thinking and problem solving tasks. Student is responsible for locating acceptable employment. Work assignments related to legal concerns are encouraged. Prerequisites: 2.50 GPA in the Philosophy major, junior or senior standing, minimum of 12 hours completed in the major, and permission of department chairperson or internship coordinator. A maximum of 3 s.h. may be counted toward the major.

499 Directed Readings. (1–3, repeatable with no maximum) Individual study of particular philosophical texts or problems. Prerequisites: two courses in Philosophy and consent of the instructor. By arrangement.