Undergraduate Catalog

Biological Sciences

Chairperson: Dr. Charles Lydeard
Office: Waggoner Hall 316
Telephone: (309) 298-2408; Fax: (309) 298-2270
E-mail: C-Lydeard@wiu.edu
Website: wiu.edu/biology

Faculty: Aanenson, Afithile, A. Alton, T. Alton, Barden-Gabbei, Engel, Holt, Hum-Musser, Jacques, Jenkins, Livingston, Lydeard, McCravy, Meagher, Meiers, Miller-Hunt, Musser, Peer, Porras-Alfaro, Ribbens, M. Romano, S. Romano, Spier, Thomas, Vogel.

Adjunct Professors: Becker, Hayes, Roncancio-Weemer, Rubnitz, Sparks, Ware, Wray, Xie.

Research Associates: Chen. Kibbe Site Manager: Lamer. Advisor: Walters.

Biology is one of the most basic fields of science with direct application to humans. Our continued existence on the planet Earth depends in large part on how we resolve problems of a biological nature. Biology is a broadly based discipline encompassing a variety of concerns ranging from medicine to pond water. The Biology program at WIU is designed to provide students with a broad exposure to the various areas of Biology.

Majors are offered in Biology (with options in Botany, Microbiology, Zoology, Medical Sciences, and Science/Biology Teacher Education) and Clinical Laboratory Science leading to a Bachelor of Science degree. Minors are offered in Zoology, Botany, and Microbiology.

Training in Biology prepares one for a broad spectrum of job opportunities, including teaching, governmental or industrial laboratories, conservation agencies, or business. In addition, students become qualified to pursue graduate studies in any of several areas of study within the Biological Sciences and the health professions.

Students planning to major in the Biological Sciences should have three years of Mathematics and one year each of Biology, Physics, and Chemistry in high school. Current WIU students must be in good standing (2.0 GPA or higher) to declare a major in the Botany, Microbiology, and Zoology options. The Medical Sciences option has a minimum standard GPA of 2.75 for enrollment into the option. Any student can be admitted into the major as an incoming freshman, but to maintain enrollment in the Medical Sciences option, a student must maintain a minimum major GPA of 2.75. A probationary period of two semesters is given for any student who falls below the minimum in major GPA. This allows for students to truly understand the necessity of good grades in science courses to do well in the medical field. A student could be admitted to any of the other options if the GPA falls below a 2.75. The four year degree in Medical Sciences is designed with the pre-professional student in mind; thus, the standards have been set closer to that of the post-graduate institutions.

GradTrac is available to Botany, Medical Sciences, Microbiology, and Zoology majors. See more information about GradTrac.

Honors Curriculum—Academically qualified students in this department are welcome to complete an honors curriculum in University Honors, Upper Division Honors, or Lower Division Honors. All Honors students must complete the one-hour honors colloquium (G H 299). Lower Division Honors includes General Honors coursework. Upper Division Honors includes honors work in the major. University Honors combines Upper and Lower Division Honors. For more information about honors curricula see the Centennial Honors College page of the catalog or visit the Centennial Honors College website at wiu.edu/Honors.

Degree Programs

Bachelor of Science—Biology

All students seeking the Bachelor of Science in Biology must complete I, II, and III.A, III.B, III.C, III.D, or III.E below, and the foreign language/global issues requirement for the major#. A grade of C (2.0) or better is required in introductory core courses before enrolling in courses for which they are prerequisites. The minimum semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree is 120 s.h.

In accordance with the Illinois State Board of Education licensure rules, all candidates seeking teacher licensure are required by Western Illinois University to obtain a grade of “C” or better in all directed General Education courses, all core courses, and all courses in the option. Note C- is below a C.

  1. University General Education and College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Requirements: 55 s.h.
    Except Teacher Education students must complete the University General Education Curriculum Requirements—43 s.h.
  2. Core Courses: 24 s.h.
    BIOL 330, 340†, 350; BOT 200; MICR 200; ZOOL 200
  3. Options of Study (select A, B, C, D, or E)
    1. Botany
      1. Special Courses: BOT 320, 410, 430†: 9 s.h.
      2. Directed Electives: Select 6 s.h. from any Botany course not previously taken; BIOL 425, 453, 454, 455, 466, 470, 477, 478, 495: 6 s.h.
      3. Any Minor: 16–20 s.h.
      4. Open Electives: 0–3 s.h.
      5. Other
        1. Chemistry including organic or biochemistry: 12–13 s.h.
          CHEM 101, 102, 221 or CHEM 201, 202, 330 or 331
        2. MATH 128 or equivalent (see advisor)* and one of: MATH 133, STAT 171, or PSY 223 or equivalent (see advisor): 4–7 s.h.
        3. GEOG 120 and 121 or GEOG 208 and 308 or any Geology sequence or any Physics sequence except PHYS 100: 6–10 s.h.
        4. Foreign Languages—one year or equivalent of a language (2 years in high school—see advisor): 0–8 s.h.
          *Completion of MATH 133 satisfies the Mathematics requirement for this option.
    2. Microbiology
      1. Special Courses
        1. Diversity: Select one from MICR 400, 401, 402, 404, 423: 3 s.h.
        2. Applied: Select one from BIOL 466; MICR 451, 465: 3 s.h.
        3. Medical: Select one from MICR 405, 434, 460, 463, 464: 3 s.h.
      2. Directed Electives; Select 6 s.h. from any Microbiology course not previously taken, BIOL 477, or BIOL 495: 6 s.h.
      3. Any Minor: 16–20 s.h.
      4. Open Electives: 0–3 s.h.
      5. Other
        1. Chemistry including organic or biochemistry: 12–13 s.h.
          CHEM 101, 102, 221 or CHEM 201, 202, 330 or 331
        2. MATH 128 or equivalent (see advisor)* and one of: MATH 133, STAT 171, or PSY 223 or equivalent (see advisor): 4–7 s.h.
        3. GEOG 120 and 121 or GEOG 208 and 308 or any Geology sequence or any Physics sequence except PHYS 100: 6–10 s.h.
        4. Foreign Languages—one year or equivalent of a language (2 years in high school—see advisor): 0–8 s.h.
          *Completion of MATH 133 satisfies the Mathematics requirement for this option.
    3. Zoology
      1. Special Courses: ZOOL 411 or 415 or 460, ZOOL 320 or 321, ZOOL 430†: 9 s.h.
      2. Directed Electives: Select 6 s.h. from any Zoology course not previously taken; BIOL 425, 444, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 459, 466, 470, 477, 478, 495: 6 s.h.
      3. Any Minor: 16–20 s.h.
      4. Open Electives: 0–3 s.h.
      5. Other
        1. Chemistry including organic or biochemistry: 12–13 s.h.
          CHEM 101, 102, 221 or CHEM 201, 202, 330 or 331
        2. MATH 128 or equivalent (see advisor)* and one of: MATH 133, STAT 171, or PSY 223 or equivalent (see advisor): 4–7 s.h.
        3. GEOG 120 and 121 or GEOG 208 and 308 or any Geology sequence or any Physics sequence except PHYS 100: 6–10 s.h.
        4. Foreign Languages—one year or equivalent of a language (2 years in high school—see advisor): 0–8 s.h.
          *Completion of MATH 133 satisfies the Mathematics requirement for this option.
    4. Medical Sciences (Pre-Health Professionals)
      1. Special Courses: BIOL 170; ZOOL 330 and 331, or ZOOL 321 and 430: 7–9 s.h.
      2. Directed Electives
        1. Choose from: MICR 400, 405, 434, 460, 463, 464, 465: 3 s.h.
        2. Choose from: BIOL 477, 495; MICR 400, 405, 434, 460, 463, 464, 465; ZOOL 330, 331, 320, 321, 328, 420, 430, 432, 460, 461: 6 s.h.
      3. Minor in Chemistry or Psychology: 18–21 s.h.
      4. Open Electives: 0–3 s.h.
      5. Other
        1. CHEM 201, 202, and 330 or 331: 13 s.h.
        2. MATH 133: 4 s.h.
        3. STAT 171 or PSY 223: 3–4 s.h.
        4. PHYS 124 and 125: 10 s.h.
        5. Foreign Languages—one year or equivalent of a language (2 years in high school—see advisor): 0–8 s.h.
    5. Science/Biology—Teacher Education
      1. Special Courses
        1. BIOL 481, 482†; BOT 430† or ZOOL 430†: 9 s.h.
        2. BIOL/GEOL 181; PHYS/GEOG 182: 8 s.h.
        3. CHEM 201, 202: 8 s.h.
        4. PHYS 114: 4 s.h.
        5. GEOL 110: 4 s.h.
      2. Department Electives: 3 s.h.
        Select 3 s.h. from any upper-division BIOL, BOT, MICR, or ZOOL course not previously taken
      3. Science Electives: 0 s.h.
        Additional courses in Biology (BIOL, BOT, MICR, ZOOL), Chemistry, Geography, Geology, or Physics
      4. Other
        1. EDUC 239, 339, 439, 469: 3 s.h.
        2. EIS 202, 301, 303 (2 s.h.), 304 (1), 305, 401: 13 s.h.
        3. MATH 128 or higher: 3 s.h.
          Not to include MATH 206, 362, 364, or 367
        4. STAT 171 or equivalent (see advisor): 3 s.h.
        5. ENG 366: 2 s.h.
        6. C&I 403: 4 s.h.
        7. SPED 210, 390: 4 s.h.
        8. STCH 480: 12 s.h.

#The foreign language/global issues graduation requirement may be fulfilled by successfully completing one of the following: 1) an intermediate foreign language requirement; 2) a General Education global issues course; 3) any major’s discipline-specific global issues course; or 4) an approved Study Abroad program.

†BIOL 340 and BOT 430 fulfill the Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) graduation requirement for the Botany option. BIOL 340 fulfills the WID graduation requirement for the Medical Sciences and Microbiology options. BIOL 340 and ZOOL 430 fulfill the WID graduation requirement for the Zoology option. BIOL 340, BIOL 482, and BOT 430 or ZOOL 430 fulfill the WID graduation requirement for the Science/Biology—Teacher Education option.

Bachelor of Science—Clinical Laboratory Science

All students seeking the Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Science must complete I, II, and III, IV, and V below, and the foreign language/global issues requirement for the major#. The minimum semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree is 120 s.h.

  1. University General Education and College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Requirements: 55 s.h.
  2. Core Courses: 18 s.h.
    BOT 200; MICR 200, 434; ZOOL 200, 430†
  3. Directed Electives
    From the following courses:: 6 s.h.
    BIOL 330, 340; MICR 400, 460, 463, 464
  4. Complete Internship at an Affiliated School of Medical Technology (p. 134): 30 s.h.
  5. Other
    1. CHEM 201, 202, 330, 421 or CHEM 201, 202, 331, 332: 17 s.h.
    2. Physics (two semesters, except 100): 8–10 s.h.
    3. MATH 128 or equivalent (see advisor): 3 s.h.

#The foreign language/global issues graduation requirement may be fulfilled by successfully completing one of the following: 1) an intermediate foreign language requirement; 2) a General Education global issues course; 3) any major’s discipline-specific global issues course; or 4) an approved Study Abroad program.

†ZOOL 430 fulfills the Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) graduation requirement.

Minors

Minor in Botany: 17 s.h.
  1. BOT 200: 4 s.h.
  2. MICR 200 or ZOOL 200: 4 s.h.
  3. Select one from BOT 320, 430, 410: 3 s.h.
  4. Select 6 s.h. from BIOL 470; BOT 210, 329, 402, 423, 451, 452, 462, 481: 6 s.h.
Minor in Microbiology: 17 s.h.
  1. MICR 200: 4 s.h.
  2. BOT 200 or ZOOL 200: 4 s.h.
  3. Select one from MICR 400, 401, 402, 404, 423: 3 s.h.
  4. Select one from BIOL 466; MICR 451, 465: 3 s.h.
  5. Select one from MICR 405, 434, 460, 463, 464: 3 s.h.
Minor in Zoology: 17 s.h.
  1. ZOOL 200: 4 s.h.
  2. BOT 200 or MICR 200: 4 s.h.
  3. Select one from ZOOL 320, 321, 411, 415, 430, 460: 3 s.h.
  4. Select 6 s.h. from BIOL 350, 444, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 459, 466; ZOOL 320, 321, 328, 408, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 430, 451, 452, 460, 461, 476: 6 s.h.
Minor in Functional Morphology and Evolutionary Anatomy

See Interdisciplinary Studies Minors.

Minor in Horticulture

See Interdisciplinary Studies Minors.

Departmental Honors

Students who complete the requirements for departmental honors in Biological Sciences will receive recognition on their official transcripts. To qualify for departmental honors, students must be accepted into the Centennial Honors College, complete all the requirements for a Biology major with an option in Botany, Microbiology, or Zoology, satisfy requirements in the cognate areas, and complete the following requirements:

  1. 2 s.h. of research-oriented Honors Seminars (BIOL 470H) taken as a junior;
  2. 3 s.h. of Honors Research (BOT/MICR/ZOOL 477H) under the supervision of a faculty advisor during the senior year;
  3. 3 s.h. of Honors Thesis (BIOL 478), which involves writing a thesis under the direction of a research advisor based on research completed while enrolled in 477H. Satisfactory defense of the thesis before the advisor and departmental Honors Committee is required for credit;
  4. 6 s.h. of General Honors courses and 1 s.h. in G H 299 Honors Colloquium;
  5. An overall 3.50 cumulative grade point average as well as a 3.50 average in all honors courses at the time of graduation.

Proficiency Examinations

Students may take proficiency examinations in BIOL 100, 101; BOT 200; and ZOOL 200. These examinations are prepared by the faculty of the department, and are generally administered during the first week of the semester. Students must register to take exams beforehand with the Biological Sciences secretary [Waggoner Hall 372, telephone (309) 298-1546.] The department will also grant credit for Biology proficiency examinations administered by The College Board; AP (Advanced Placement) score ≥ 3, credit = BOT 200 & ZOOL 200; CLEP (College-Level Examination Program) score ≥ 50, credit = BIOL 100; CLEP score ≥ 60, credit = BOT 200 & ZOOL 200. Credit is given for the general Biology course(s) for which a satisfactory examination score has been achieved, and the student may enroll in courses for which the course in question is a prerequisite.

Alice L. Kibbe Life Science Station

The Department of Biological Sciences manages a field station for scientific and instructional use located 45 miles west of Macomb on the Mississippi River. The field station consists of three units, 415 acres owned by the University, 697 acres owned by The Nature Conservancy which serves as a wintering roosting area for Bald Eagles, and 587 acres owned by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources which is primarily river floodplain habitat and a designated nature preserve area. The field station facilities include the resident manager’s house, two large storage buildings for boats and maintenance equipment, and a teaching/resident facility. From three to five field-oriented courses are offered each summer at the field station. For more information, contact Dr. Sean E. Jenkins, Field Station Director, Department of Biological Sciences, Waggoner Hall 215, telephone (309) 298-2045.

Course Descriptions

BIOLOGY (BIOL)

Laboratories are required in all courses in the department except BIOL 419, 454, and ZOOL 420. Students are expected to participate in all required course activities including field trips as specified by the instructor.

100 Biological Concepts. (4) (General Education/ Natural Sciences) A laboratory course recommended for nonscience majors, relating reproduction, heredity, evolution, ecology, and behavior to human life and the problems of society. This General Education curriculum course does not count toward a major or minor in Biology. IAI: L1 900L.

101 Biological World. (4) (General Education/ Natural Sciences) A laboratory course recommended for nonscience majors, dealing with the structure and function of the human body and with selected aspects of microbes, plants, and animals and how they affect humans. This General Education curriculum course does not count toward a major or minor in Biology.

170 Introduction to Health Careers. (1) Career opportunities in the health professions will be discussed. Vertical and lateral mobilities and education requirements will be stressed.

181 (Cross-listed with GEOL 181) Integrated Science I. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) A laboratory course in interdisciplinary science with an emphasis on the nature and evolution of life and Earth. Topics include ecology, natural resources, formation of Earth materials, Earth processes, nutrient cycling, cell biology, genetics, and evolution. (Integrated Science II is PHYS/GEOG 182) Not open to students with credit in GEOL 181. Prerequisite: MATH 099N.

204 Human Biology. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) This course will include topics on human evolution, behavior, ecology, physiology, genetics, sex determination, molecular genetics, mutations, and genetic engineering. Laboratory experiments include dissection of a preserved fetal pig and follow chicken egg development AND/OR the student will complete a “Virtual Physiology” laboratory on a CD-ROM. This course will not count toward a Biology major.

330 Cell and Molecular Biology. (4) Morphological and functional aspects of the cell. Lecture and lab will emphasize cell structure and how this relates to physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

340 Genetics and Evolutionary Biology. (4) Lecture and lab emphasizing transmission genetics, genetic mapping, and the genetic processes underlying evolutionary processes. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Prerequisites: BIOL 330; ENG 280.

350 General Ecology. (4) This course examines the causes of patterns in the abundance and distribution of organisms at the population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and global levels. The relationships of ecological principles to environmental issues will be examined. Prerequisites: Two of the following—BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

419 Organic Evolution. (3) A detailed study of the mechanisms of evolution. Prerequisites: BIOL 330, 340; BOT 200 (C grade or better); ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

425 Conservation Biology. (3) Biology of small, endangered populations. Genetic and ecological consequences of small population size, reserve design, and intervention to reduce extinction risk. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); BIOL 340 or permission of the instructor.

426 (Cross-listed with GEOG 426) Conservation and Management of Natural Resources. (3) Problems in the conservation and management of natural resources including soil, water, rangeland, forest, wildlife, air, and energy resources. Special attention to resource problems of the United States. Not open to students with credit in GEOG 426. Prerequisites: GEOG 120 and 121, or consent of instructor.

435 Radiation Biology. (3) Topics vary and may include: molecular genetics, regulation of protein synthesis, mutagenesis, gametogenesis, and genetic control of differentiation and morphogenesis. Prerequisites: BIOL 340; one year of Chemistry and Physics.

451 Ecological Techniques. (3) Techniques and analytical methods used to examine terrestrial and aquatic communities are studied, including data analysis specific to those techniques. Includes field experience. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) or permission of the instructor.

452 Biological Applications of GIS. (3) This course deals with biological problems examined using data acquisition and analytical methods from geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS). Prerequisites: One Biology course and GEOG 208.

453 Streams Ecology. (3) Structure and function in lotic ecosystems is emphasized in this course. Physical, chemical, and biotic factors used in stream classification will be examined. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and either an ecology course or permission of the instructor.

454 Mississippi River Ecology. (3) Students will be given an opportunity to study the structure and function of major abiotic and biotic components of a major river system. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how the components interact and are influenced by activities related to human interdiction. Prerequisite: one year of Biology of permission of the instructor.

455 Mississippi River Ecology Laboratory. (1) Techniques used to study the large floodplain river ecosystem of the Mississippi River will be demonstrated and/or used by students to collect samples from its plant and animal communities. Prerequisite: BIOL 454 or concurrent registration in BIOL 454.

458 Plant-Animal Interactions. (3) Explores the co-evolutionary relationships of plants and animals. Lecture topics will include herbivory, pollination biology, and dispersal. Lab emphasis will be placed on research experiments that utilize chemical, behavioral, and molecular techniques, and review of the scientific literature. Prerequisite: BIOL 330, BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of instructor.

459 (Cross-listed with GEOG 459) Biogeography. (3) Study of the geographical distributions of organisms, the evolutionary and ecological processes underlying the patterns of distribution, and the role of biogeography in biological conservation. Not open to students with credit in GEOG 459. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of instructor.

466 Biotechnology Laboratory. (3) A laboratory course devoted to the development of DNA manipulation techniques and fundamental theories used by the biotechnology industry to enhance or identify beneficial properties of commercially significant organisms. Model organisms such as bacteria and fungi will be used. Prerequisites: MICR 200 (C grade or better), and one of the following: BIOL 330 or BIOL 340.

470 Seminar. (1, repeatable to 2) Seminar for senior Biology majors.

477 Research Experience in Biology. (1–12, repeatable to 12) Research experience with a Biological Sciences faculty member. A final report and/ or seminar may be required. Maximum of 3 s.h. may be applied to major or minor. Prerequisites: sophomore standing, BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better). Arrange research project with faculty member and department chair before registration.

478 Honors Thesis in Biological Sciences. (3) A thesis prepared under the direction of one or more faculty members. Satisfactory oral defense of thesis required before credit is given for the course. Prerequisites: Honors major in Biology with senior standing; completion of BOT/ZOOL/MICR 477H.

479 Tropical Ecology. (3) Introduction to tropical ecology, biodiversity, and ecosystem function in a variety of tropical ecosystems. Includes a required field trip to several research stations in Costa Rica. Students will be responsible for trip expenses. Prerequisite: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and permission of instructor.

495 Internship in Biology. (1–12, repeatable to 12) Practical experience in the Biological Sciences with an approved employer. 40 contact hours per credit hour and a written report are required. Maximum of 3 s.h. may be applied to major or minor. Prerequisites: 60 s.h. and permission of the department chair. Graded S/U only.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION

439 Methods of Teaching Secondary Science. (3) Study of secondary teaching methods (Grades 6–12) from the standpoints of theory and practice, curriculum objectives and standard implementation, materials, and evaluation and assessment. Included are demonstrations, discussions, lectures, classroom participation, and field observations. Prerequisites: major in Science/Biology—Teacher Education option and EIS 301. Corequisite: EIS 303.

480 Student Teaching. See STCH 480.

481 Scientific Techniques and Issues. (3) An interdisciplinary course wherein preservice middle and high school science teachers develop techniques and resources appropriate for their instructional program, deepen understanding of scientific concepts, and examine lab safety. Requires involvement in several professional development activities outside of class time. Prerequisites: EDUC 439 and ENG 280 or equivalent.

482 (Cross-listed with CHEM 482 and PHYS 482) Science in Context. (3) Interdisciplinary course designed for science majors pursuing secondary teacher licensure. Students will explore science as inquiry, the unifying principles of science, and the role of social contexts and ethics in science. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Not open to students with credit in CHEM 482 or PHYS 482. Prerequisite: senior standing in Science/Biology—Teacher Education option, or permission of instructor; ENG 280.

BOTANY (BOT)

200 Introduction to Plant Biology. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) A lecture and laboratory course recommended for science majors and minors, emphasizing basic principles in plant biology including scientific inquiry, cell biology, genetics, ecology, evolution, and diversity in plant anatomy and physiology.

210 Local Flora. (3) Identification, ecology, and distribution of common trees, shrubs, flowers, and other plants of Illinois.

320 Plant Anatomy. (3) Structure and development of vascular plant organs. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

329 Plant Structure & Function. (3) A study of plant structure and function including photosynthesis, photoperiodism, tropisms, water and mineral uptake and transport, and an understanding of the angiosperm life cycle. Closed to students who have taken BOT 320 or BOT 430. Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or HORT 180 or ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) or consent of instructor.

402 Field Mycology. (3) Identification, systematics, and ecology of macro-fungi. May not be taken by students who have completed MICR 402. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

410 Plant Systematics. (3) The basic systems, principles, and methods of plant systematics; the identification and classification of Illinois vascular plants. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

423 Phycology. (3) Morphology, taxonomy, physiology, genetics, and ecology of the algae, particularly freshwater forms. May not be taken by students who have completed MICR 423. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

430 Plant Physiology. (3) Physiological processes of plants as an interaction of structure, chemistry, physical characteristics, and environment. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better); ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); one year of Chemistry; ENG 280.

451 Plant Ecology. (3) Relationships of plants to their environment; community ecology and the use of quantitative methods to determine distribution. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better); BOT 210 or 410; ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); ENG 280.

452 Freshwater Biology. (3) Common freshwater organisms and some of their relationships to one another, to their environment, and to people. May not be taken by students who have completed ZOOL 452. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

455 Fire/Disturbance Ecology. (3) Using laboratory and lecture, this course examines the role of fire and other disturbances on the distribution and ecology of plants in natural environments. Opportunity for The Nature Conservancy’s prescribed burn certification will be available. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

461 Plant Pathology. (3) Principles of phytopathology including the causal agents, development, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. May not be taken by students who have completed MICR 461. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); MICR 200 (C grade or better) or permission of the instructor.

462 Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. (3) Diagnosis, development, cycles, and control of major diseases in forestry and horticulture. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

463 (Cross-listed with ANTH 463) Ethnobotany. (4) (Global Issues) A survey of how indigenous people use and classify plants in comparison to modern, scientific principles of botany and plant chemistry, and the use of traditional knowledge by modern science. May require field work travel at student expense. Not open to students with credit in ANTH 463. Prerequisites: BIOL 100, 101; BOT 200 (C grade or better); ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); ANTH 110 or SOC 100; or permission of instructor.

476 Special Topics. (3–9, repeatable for different topics to 9) Proposed courses which are under consideration as regular courses. See instructor for course description. Only 6 s.h. may count toward major. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

481 Experimental Plant Biology. (3) A laboratory oriented course providing experience in designing, implementing, analyzing, and reporting botanicallyoriented experiments. Field experiments, greenhouse experiments, and laboratory experiments will be conducted, spanning a range of investigations from plant physiology to community ecology. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

MICROBIOLOGY (MICR)

200 Introductory Microbiology. (4) A lecture and laboratory course recommended for science majors and minors, providing an introduction to microorganisms with emphasis on the biology, methodology, and applied aspect of viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and slime molds.

400 Bacteriology. (3) Cultural, morphologic, and metabolic properties and methods of isolation of bacteria as related to home and community life, industry, medicine, and agriculture. Prerequisites: one year of Chemistry; BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

401 Mycology. (3) An introduction to the biology of the fungi emphasizing their morphology, ecology, physiology, and applied aspects, as well as laboratory techniques used in isolation, culture, and identification. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of instructor.

402 Field Mycology. (3) Identification, systematics, and ecology of macro-fungi. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 402. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

404 Biology of Archaea. (3) Genomics, cell structure, molecular phylogenetics, life in extreme environments, biogeography, central metabolism, sulfur metabolism, methanogenesis, genetic exchange, gene expression, growth and stress physiology, biotechnology. Prerequisites: BIOL 330, 340; MICR 200 (C grade or better).

405 Virology. (3) A study of the biological characteristics of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses and the viruses which cause disease. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

423 Phycology. (3) Morphology, taxonomy, physiology, genetics, and ecology of the algae, particularly freshwater forms. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 423. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

434 Immunology. (3) A study of antigens and antibodies, the immune response and immunity, immunologic testing, allergy and hypersensitivity, transplantation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer immunology. Laboratory includes selected immunologic techniques. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); one year of Chemistry.

451 Microbial Ecology. (3) Ecobiology of the major microbial groups and their role in processing carbonaceous and geochemical elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); ENG 280.

460 Parasitology. (3) Ecology and evolutionary relationships of parasitic eukaryotes. Emphasis on parasites of humans. May not be taken by students who have completed ZOOL 460. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

461 Plant Pathology. (3) Principles of phytopathology including the causal agents, development, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 461. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); MICR 200 (C grade or better) or permission of the instructor.

463 Pathogenic Bacteriology. (3) The study of bacteria, rickettsia, mycoplasma, and chlamydia which cause disease in humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

464 Medical Mycology. (3) The study of fungi which cause disease in humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

465 Industrial and Fermentation Microbiology. (3) Examines the commercial use and largescale cultivation of microorganisms to produce natural products and processes of major economic, environmental, and social importance. Laboratory exercises in microbial fermentation processes. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

ZOOLOGY (ZOOL)

200 Introduction to Animal Biology. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) A lecture and laboratory course recommended for science majors and minors, emphasizing basic principles in animal biology including scientific inquiry, cell biology, genetics, ecology, evolution, and diversity in animal anatomy and physiology.

320 Vertebrate Embryology. (3) Development of the vertebrate body and its organs. Provides a basis for understanding adult anatomy. Both lecture and laboratory are descriptive. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

321 Comparative Anatomy. (3) Anatomy of the vertebrates studied from the viewpoint of their evolutionary history. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); junior standing or consent of the instructor.

325 Vertebrate Evolution. (3) The evolutionary history of the vertebrates, emphasizing macroevolutionary trends in vertebrate diversity and skeletal functional morphology. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) or GEOL 112 or ANTH 111.

328 Histology. (3) Microscopic study of tissues and organs of vertebrates. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

330 (Formerly ZOOL 230) Human Anatomy and Physiology I. (4) An integrated study of the organ systems of the normal human body. Subjects covered include cells, tissues, skeletal, muscular, central, and autonomic nervous systems. Laboratory includes cat dissection and appropriate physiological experiments. Prerequisite: BIOL 101 (C grade or better) or ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) or MICR 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

331 (Formerly ZOOL 231) Human Anatomy and Physiology II. (4) A continuation of ZOOL 330. The topics included are the endocrine, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, metabolic, urinary, and reproductive systems. Prerequisite: ZOOL 330.

408 Field Ornithology. (3) A course devoted to the study of birds, emphasizing study techniques used in natural environments. Topics covered will include reproductive behavior, ecology, communication, systematics, and conservation. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

409 Field Entomology. (3) A course in insect biology, emphasizing sampling techniques and study of insects in natural environments, as well as insect identification, ecology, and conservation biology. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

410 Ornithology. (3) Identification, biology, ecology, and life histories of birds. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better). Frequent field trips.

411 Entomology. (3) Principles of entomology, including classification, general biology, and morphology. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

412 Mammalogy. (3) Identification, classification, distribution, and life histories of mammals. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

413 Herpetology. (3) Identification, classification, distribution, and biology of reptiles and amphibians. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

414 Ichthyology. (3) Identification, classification, distribution, and life histories of fishes. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better). Estimate of field trip costs: $10.00. Outside field trips required.

415 Invertebrate Zoology. (3) A study of invertebrate form and function as it relates to taxonomy, evolution, ecology, behavior, and physiology. Laboratory will involve comparative experimental and observational approaches. Prerequisite: ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

416 Marine Mammalogy. (3) Survey of marine mammals with emphasis on taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation. Laboratory includes observational study of marine mammals at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); senior standing in Biology or a related major.

417 (Cross-listed with ANTH 417) Primate Ecology, Behavior and Evolution. (3) This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to primatology utilizing principles from anthropology, ecology, paleontology, and animal behavior. Students gain an understanding of the evolutionary history, adaptations, and conservation of primates and their habitats. Not open to students with credit in ANTH 417. Prerequisite: ANTH 111 or ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) or permission of instructor. Junior standing recommended.

420 Biology of Aging. (3) Introduction to the nature and theories of aging. A study of the processes involved at the molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal levels of development and the changes that occur with time. Relationships between aging and immunity, neoplasia, and systems integration are explored. Emphasis on humans. Prerequisites: BIOL 100 and 101 or BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

430 Animal Physiology. (3) Systemic physiology, concerning the functions of nervous, muscular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, reproductive, and endocrine systems. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better); ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); one year of Chemistry; ENG 280.

432 Neurobiology. (3) Provides a quantitative understanding of neurophysiology in the context of neural systems that underlie animal behavior. Laboratory uses animal preparations and computer models. Prerequisites: MATH 123 (or higher) with a grade of C or better, and either BIOL 100 (or higher) or PSY 343 with a grade of C or better, and minimum of junior standing; or permission of instructor.

451 Advanced Topics in Animal Ecology. (3) Relationships of animals to their environment. Writing Instruction in the Discipline (WID) course. Prerequisites: BIOL 350, ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and ENG 280.

452 Freshwater Biology. (3) Common freshwater organisms and some of their relationships to one another, to their environment, and to man. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 452. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

460 Parasitology. (3) Ecology and evolutionary relationships of parasitic eukaryotes. Emphasis on parasites of humans. May not be taken by students who have completed MICR 460. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

461 (Cross-listed with NURS 461) Pathophysiology. (4) Alteration in physiology, pathogenesis of structure and function of the human body leading to disease, and manifestations of disease states are discussed. In addition, body system interaction is analyzed in maintaining physiological homeostasis during disease/ altered states. Not open to students with credit in NURS 461. Prerequisites: MICR 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 330 and ZOOL 331; or consent of instructor.

476 Special Topics. (3–9, repeatable for different topics to 9) Proposed courses which are under consideration as regular course offerings. See instructor for course description. Only 6 s.h may count toward major. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

485 (Cross-listed with RPTA 485) Resource Management for Fly Fisheries. (3) Students will learn trout stream ecology and management, and gain fly-fishing experience. Course includes a one-week trip to a stream for students to meet with resource professionals and to practice their skills. Not open to students with credit in RPTA 485. Prerequisite: One of the following: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), RPTA 110, RPTA 111, or permission of instructor.

CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE (CLS): CLINICAL TOPICS IN CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE

Hospital-based lecture and clinical laboratory courses in an accredited and affiliated school of medical technology. Students will register for 15 s.h. for Fall semester and 15 s.h. for Spring semester. Total hours approximately 30–32 s.h.

490 Clinical Chemistry I. (1–6, repeatable to maximum) Theory and practice of analytical biochemistry as applied to pathologic states, methodology, and instrumentation. Statistics as applied to reagent preparation, result determination, and quality control. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

491 Clinical Chemistry II. (1–6, repeatable to maximum) Theory and practice of analytical biochemistry as applied to specialized tests for drugs, endocrine function, and urine and body fluid analysis. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

492 Clinical Microbiology I. (1–6, repeatable to maximum) Theory and practice of the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria in clinical specimens through cultures, morphology, biochemical, and serological reactions and their drug susceptibility. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

493 Clinical Microbiology II. (1–6, repeatable to maximum) Theory and practice of the isolation and identification of fungi, parasites, and viruses utilizing morphological, cultural, biochemical, and serological methods. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

494 Clinical Immunology. (1–5, repeatable to maximum) The study of principles of the protective and adverse aspects of cellular and humoral responses. Performance of test procedures based on antigenantibody reactions. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

495 Clinical Homeostasis. (1–4, repeatable to maximum) The study of platelets, vascular, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems related to the disease state and therapeutic monitoring. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

496 Clinical Hematology. (1–6, repeatable to maximum) The study of the formed elements of the blood and basic morphological changes due to diseases. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

497 Clinical Immunohematology. (1–5, repeatable to maximum) Theory and practice of immunohematology, including blood groups, blood transfusion, and component preparation. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.

499 Selected Topics. (1–4, repeatable to maximum) Selected topics of professional significance which may include management, pathology, medico-legal aspects, and basic teaching principles. Prerequisite: acceptance for clinical education into an affiliated school of medical technology.